A Companion to Europe 1900-1945 by Gordon Martel

By Gordon Martel

A spouse to Europe 1900-1945 ВОЕННАЯ ИСТОРИЯ, ИСТОРИЯ Издательство: Blackwell Publishing LtdСерия: Blackwell partners to ecu historyАвтор(ы): Gordon MartelЯзык: EnglishГод издания: 2006Количество страниц: 587ISBN: 978-1-4051-0664-1Формат: pdf (e-book)Размер: 4,35 mb RAPIDили IFOLDER zero

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The complaints of Poles, Hungarians, and Italians concerning this or that frontier arrangement were petty in comparison with those of Germans and Russians who argued that the French and the British were seeking to keep them forever in chains. And thus was the new Europe of 1919 beleaguered by attacks on its very essence. According to its critics, the only thing that had changed since 1900 was the Machiavellian realization of the goals of western imperialism. And the way to reverse the judgment imposed by the French and the British was to restore those elements of imperial might that had enabled their opponents to succeed: they must rebuild their armies and navies.

Indeed, the century opened with the “thunder-clap” of another such survey – Seebohm Rowntree’s study of the outwardly prosperous city of York, which concluded that over 27 percent of the inhabitants were in fact living in poverty. Further research, conducted in the interwar period by social scientists, appeared to confirm the persistence of poverty despite widespread improvements in standards of living for many. Llewellyn Smith’s New Survey of London Life and Labour 1930–1935 argued that 500,000 Londoners were still living below a poverty line fixed in accordance with that used by Booth forty years earlier.

Far from species evolving into ever more sophisticated forms over time, the concept implied that some people were “degenerating” into lower, more animalistic forms of being. While degeneration could affect the effete aristocrats of the upper classes, it was far more urbanization, poverty, and crime 11 commonly linked to urban environments and particularly the slum areas where the very poor lived. The filthy, squalid existence of the poor was seen to have a detrimental effect on their physical, mental, and moral health.

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