A History of Experimental Virology by Alfred Grafe

By Alfred Grafe

By their powers of cause scientists might be in a position to extract from nature the solutions to their questions. From: Critique of natural cause, 1781 Immanuel Kant (1724-1804), German thinker heritage is a composite of news. The heritage of the organic disciplines has been written through all those that opened the gates of latest wisdom by means of producing principles and the experiments to aid them. prior authors have tried quite a few ways to the heritage of virology, as is mirrored within the a variety of books and book-series issuing from the publishing homes. This quantity is an try at a compre­ hensive but compact survey of virology, which has intended penetrating the inflexible limits of the separate disciplines of biology during which virologists have labored. scripting this background of experimental virology was once particularly a look for the origins and for important signposts to painting the large scope of the data attained so far. This was once performed in com­ plete knowledge of the truth that each presentation relies seriously upon the point of view of the observer, and of necessity communi­ cates just a a part of the entire. the current medical tale hopes to recount an important wisdom accomplished in this prior century - the 1st century of the fascinating advancements in virology.

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M'Fadyean then concluded that the contagium must be a microbe, but neither researcher engaged in further speculation on the nature of the pathogen. 6 Fowl Plague An epidemic-like disease occurring in fowls had also spread through northern Italy in 1878 and, 20 years later, in Austria and southern Germany. Clinically this disease could be clearly differentiated from chicken cholera. In 1901 Centanni reported his experimental results on the etiology of fowl plague before the Academia medica di Ferrara and in further publications in 1902.

Although the German physician Pollender had observed and described the bacterium which caused anthrax in 1855, he did not recognize it as the anthrax pathogen. Davaine, Pasteur and Koch pursued their studies in this field to clarify the etiology. The French surgeon Villemin described his successful transmission experiments with tuberculous material in 1878, and Koch proved a bacillus to be the cause of this disease in 1882. The first indications of bacteriological diseases in plants came from the USA in 1878.

Smith had already proved that humoral defensive substances could be induced also by dead germs in experiments with swine erysipelas vaccine. Approximately a decade later, it was already possible to characterize the various types of humoral protective substances inherent in the body, viz. the antibodies. Pfeiffer and Issaeff found a specific antibody against the cholera bacillus in Berlin in 1894. Since this antibody was in fact able to dissolve the bacillus, they called the process bacteriolysis and the antibody lysin.

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