A little Smalltalk by Timothy Budd

By Timothy Budd

Budd's advent to Smalltalk programming and the Little Smalltalk interpreter makes a speciality of effortless, instead of complex subject matters of object-oriented programming. The Little Smalltalk method runs below the UNIX working process and will be finished on traditional terminals.

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The energy is strictly associated with the particle and does not consist even in part of heat or work. This same quantity is called the electro-chemical potential, µ, in most thermodynamics texts. 5. Some useful thermodynamics results Listed below are two results, which will be used while analyzing semiconductor devices. The actual derivation is beyond the scope of this text. 1. The thermal energy of a particle, whose energy depends quadratically on its velocity, equals kT/2 per degree of freedom, where k is Boltzmann's constant.

7) which is referred to as Poisson's equation. 5 Calculate the energy relative to the Fermi energy for which the Fermi function equals 5%. Write the answer in units of kT. 05 E − EF 1 + exp( ) kT which can be solved yielding: E − E F = ln( 19) kT = 3kT 08/ 30/ 00 © B. 2 Calculate the maximum fraction of the volume in a simple cubic crystal occupied by the atoms. Assume that the atoms are closely packed and that they can be treated as hard spheres. This fraction is also called the packing density.

The atoms in a simple cubic crystal are located at the corners of the units cell, a cube with side a. Adjacent atoms touch each other so that the radius of each atom equals a/2. There are eight atoms occupying the corners of the cube, but only one eighth of each is within the unit cell so that the number of atoms equals one per unit cell. The packing density is then obtained from: 4 3 4 a 3 πr π( ) Volume of atoms 3 3 2 = π = 52 % = = 3 3 Volume of the unit cell 6 a a or about half the volume of the unit cell is occupied by the atoms.

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