A Strategic Vision for NSF Investments in Antarctic and by Engineering, and Medicine National Academies of Sciences,

By Engineering, and Medicine National Academies of Sciences, Division on Earth and Life Studies, Polar Research Board, Committee on the Development of a Strategic Vision for the U.S. Antarctic Program

Antarctic and Southern Ocean clinical learn has produced a wide range of vital and interesting medical advances. Spanning oceanography to tectonics, microbiology to astrophysics, the intense Antarctic atmosphere offers distinctive possibilities to extend our wisdom approximately how our planet works or even the very origins of the universe. examine at the Southern Ocean and the Antarctic ice sheets is changing into more and more pressing not just for realizing the way forward for the zone but in addition its interconnections with and affects on many different elements of the globe.

The U.S. nationwide technology starting place (NSF) offers U.S. researchers with large entry to the continent and its surrounding ocean. A Strategic imaginative and prescient for NSF Investments in Antarctic and Southern Ocean Research identifies priorities and strategic steps ahead for Antarctic study and observations for the following decade. This survey offers a decadal imaginative and prescient for strategic investments in compelling study and the infrastructure most crucial for aiding this examine. This file makes suggestions for high-priority, larger-scale, community-driven examine projects that tackle questions poised for major enhance with the subsequent a long time. This record additionally outlines a roadmap during which the imaginative and prescient and those priorities may be met.

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Sample text

These experiments led to the understanding that the region of cold plasma surrounding the Earth (the plasmasphere) has a profound effect on the waves. Waves at this frequency propagate upward into space, and the velocity of the VLF waves through plasma is dependent upon the frequency and the plasma density. A lightning bolt launches waves at many frequencies that propagate upward along the magnetic field and are observed in the opposite hemisphere. The higher frequencies moving through the plasma surrounding the Earth travel faster and are heard first, followed by the lower frequencies, thus producing the falling tone that sounds like a whistle.

While continental in scale, ice sheet flow speed and thickness are affected by the underlying rock and sediment, the temperature of the surrounding oceans, and input of new snow from the polar ­atmosphere. Advances in our understanding of this integrated system have come from both individual studies and major international collaborative programs. For instance, individual investigator analysis of records from seismometers and exposed landscapes led to an understanding of how large ice streams and outlet glaciers drain the ice from 25 Copyright © National Academy of Sciences.

S. federal agencies that play important roles in the USAP. Some examples include: • NASA’s Operation IceBridge utilizes research aircraft equipped with monitoring instruments to characterize annual changes in thickness of sea ice, glaciers, and ice sheets. IceBridge fills a gap in polar observing needs until launch of the ICESat-2 satellite. • NASA’s Long-Duration Balloon Program (with logistical support from NSF) uses large unmanned helium balloons to provide an inexpensive means to place payloads into a space environment, taking advantage of the unique atmospheric circulation over Antarctica.

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