A survey of techniques for formal verification of by Jain J., Narayan A., Fujita M.

By Jain J., Narayan A., Fujita M.

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If a sequence of binary zeros occurs, then a transition takes place at the start of the clock cycle. Moreover, a Miller sequence might consist of 2, 4, or 8 subcarrier cycles/bit. • Modified Miller encoding: In this encoding mechanism, each tran- sition (in Miller) is replaced by a short negative pulse. Fundamentals and Operating Principles for RFID 39 • FM0 encoding: This is also known as biphase space encoding. A • • • • transition occurs at the beginning of each clock cycle. A binary “0” is represented by an additional transition at the middle of the clock cycle and a binary “1” is represented by no transition at the middle of the clock cycle.

6 dB. 3. 2), which takes into account the capacitance of the IC. In order to obtain radiation pattern results numerically, an RLC boundary along with the port impedance that simulates the behavior of the IC (with its complex impedance feed) can be introduced. 8 the 2-D radiation plot is shown for the phi = 0° and phi = 90°, where a classic dipole radiation pattern is realized. It is also worth mentioning that the radiation pattern throughout the bandwidth of the antenna has to have a consistent pattern or close enough to that of a classic (λ/2) dipole antenna.

As for the uplink communication to the reader, the data is sent either using amplitude shift keying with 100% modulation index or frequency shift keying (FSK), both of which use Manchester encoding. Manchester encoding is a simple type of data extraction that does not require any additional information about the transmit clock—in other words, self-clocking where bits are transmitted over a predefined period of time. The major encoding methods used inductive and/or capacitive coupling RFID systems are: • Nonreturn to zero (NRZ) direct: In this method a binary “1” is represented by one significant condition (logic high level) and a binary “0” is represented by another (logic low level) [4].

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