By Mel Thompson
The 3rd version of moral thought has been up to date in response to the revised a degree specification standards. It offers a necessary historical past to moral matters via giving an overview of significant moral theories and the way those can be utilized to a variety of modern ethical concerns. the recent variation combines the entire strengths of the second one variation with a brand new layout and contours to make the content material extra available to all scholars with the intention to strengthen their realizing of the subject. New good points contain: - Key questions in the course of the chapters to aid scholars concentrate on the major concerns - key words outlined and defined in the course of the chapters - Profiles of key members - their contribution and value - extra precis diagrams all through to assist revision - images and illustrations - Revision checklists on the finish of chapters - New exam-style questions and advice on the finish of every bankruptcy.
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L. Stevenson in his Ethics and Language (1944). He was particularly concerned about how moral statements are used, and what results they are intended to produce. He claimed that the word ‘good’ was a persuasive definition: it was there to express your emotions. On the other hand, if you tried to go on from there to give some reason why you felt that way, that is more than emotivism will allow. If moral statements are simply a listing of how we feel, that does not seem to do justice to the way in which moral statements are actually used.
If we are ‘inventing’ right and wrong, why are we doing it? What does humankind have to gain from having developed a sense of conscience? It would seem that at some point ethics needs to be based on something other than itself. Morality remains a phenomenon which needs some explanation. The first is ‘nihilism’. The second is that, if moral language simply refers to our present emotions or prescriptions, it is difficult to see how moral progress could be possible. Traditional theories are more concerned with finding a basis for morality in experience, in emotions or in the way in which our minds work, than with the meaning of ethical language.
The soldier may be physically able to disobey such an order, but may believe that it is in the general interest of ending the conflict that he should obey the command and cause this particular individual to suffer. He may face severe punishment if he disobeys. In such a situation, is the soldier actually free? Is a natural fear of punishment sufficiently strong to justify the claim that he was not free to disobey? 28 ETHICAL THEORY But if that is the case, then what about soldiers in a battle? If a soldier is ordered to attack some enemy position, even though it appears almost certain that he will be killed in the attempt, he is expected to obey that order, and it would generally be regarded as right and honourable for him to do so.