Advances in biorefineries: Biomass and waste supply chain by Keith W. Waldron

By Keith W. Waldron

This booklet offers a entire and systematic reference at the complex biomass restoration and conversion methods utilized in biorefineries. the 1st a part of the booklet studies advancements in biorefining techniques, by way of a evaluate of other varieties of biorefinery platform. the second one half the ebook discusses the big variety of extra price items from biorefineries, from biofuel to biolubricants and bioadhesives.

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Water is increasingly seen as a scarce resource too in certain areas of our planet, but its use as a green solvent is increasingly envisaged due to its non-toxicity compared to hydrocarbon-based solvents (Simon and Li, 2012). Nevertheless, contaminated water is difficult and expensive to treat and re-use. Another alternative to VOC solvents are involatile solvents such as ionic liquids designed to eliminate air-borne emissions. Ionic liquids are used in phase transfer catalysis for example (Welton, 2004), but their non-emissions are counteracted by their toxicity and their environmental impact when prepared, used and separated for end-use.

It is therefore of vital importance that the message is not distorted by common misconceptions over what is or is not ‘green’, thus altering their original goal: to aim towards safer and cleaner chemistry. ), are pushing hard for their replacement to avoid further risks to human and/or environmental health. However, we should make sure the substitutes used are genuinely safer across the whole life cycle and as effective as what they are replacing. Investing in R&D focused on finding truly greener alternatives, thus eliminating rushed and weak substitutions that can even increase the number of components present in formulations when ingredients are added to compensate for a lack of performance in the ‘greener’ formulation, is important.

But as they are time-consuming and expensive, it is unrealistic to believe that chemo-processes will be entirely replaced by natural organism catalysed processes in the foreseeable future. 2 Drivers for change Our society faces a new challenge: as the current consumption model dominated by market demand is running out of breath, our society needs to adopt a more realistic and sustainable model based on the efficient and sustainable use of natural resources in order to sustain emerging economies at the standard established in the West over the last century.

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