Advances in Photovoltaics: Part 4 by Gerhard P. Willeke, Eicke R. Weber

By Gerhard P. Willeke, Eicke R. Weber

Advances in Photovoltaics: Part Four presents worthy info at the demanding situations confronted through the transformation of our strength offer procedure to extra effective, renewable energies.

The quantity discusses the subject from an international viewpoint, providing the most recent details on photovoltaics, a cornerstone technology.

It covers all points of this crucial semiconductor expertise, reflecting at the large and dynamic advances which were made in this subject on the grounds that 1975, whilst the 1st publication on sun cells-written by way of Harold J. Hovel of IBM-was released as quantity eleven within the now recognized sequence on Semiconductors and Semimetals.

Readers will achieve a backstage examine the continual and speedy medical improvement that ends up in the mandatory cost and price mark downs in worldwide commercial mass-production.

  • Written via prime, the world over recognized specialists on his topic
  • Provides an in-depth evaluation of the present prestige and views of skinny movie PV technologies
  • Discusses the demanding situations confronted throughout the transformation of our power offer approach to extra effective, renewable energies
  • Delves deep into photovoltaics, a cornerstone technolog

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Silicon Crystallization Technologies 37 Figure 19 Temperature field of a G4 furnace. In particular, the bottom area is of great importance, since the latent heat has to be removed through the bottom area without bending the solid–liquid interface. Most furnaces use either a water-cooled or a gascooled baseplate. The loading of a crucible and a resulting G4 block, together with a side slab and a finished brick for wafering, are seen in Fig. 20. Typical cycle times are in the range of 50–70 h, depending on the crucible load and the ingot height.

Compared to the Cz process, FZ growth is considerably less automated and skilled operators are mandatory. 3 mm/min Heat-up phase %1 h % 5–8 h Cool-down phase %1 h % 5–6 h Time needed for cleaning, charging, etc. %2 h %3 h Hot-zone, graphite consumables 00 Time per kg crystallized Si (based on 8 ) 00 point where sufficient intrinsic carriers are generated in the silicon. Table 7 compares the main features of the FZ and the Cz method. Despite the fact that the inside of an FZ chamber looks rather simple, requirements for the mechanical rigidity and stiffness, for the vacuum capability, and for the excellence of the RF-generator are very stringent.

Appl. Phys. 30 (4), 459–474. , 1980. Impurities in silicon solar cells. IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 27 (4), 677–687. , 2002. Plasma-refining process to provide solar-grade silicon. Sol. Energy Mater. Cells 72, 69–75. , 2012. Silicon single crystal doped with gallium, indium, or aluminum US2012/0056135 A1. , 2007. Method for producing directionally solidified silicon ingots. 2007. , 2003. Czochralski growth of doped germanium with an applied rotating magnetic field. Cryst. Res. Technol. 38 (7–8), 659–668.

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