By N B Davies; J R Krebs; Stuart A West
Normal choice, ecology and behavior -- checking out hypotheses in behavioural ecology -- financial judgements and the person -- Predators as opposed to prey: evolutionary palms races -- Competing for assets -- residing in teams -- Sexual choice, sperm pageant and sexual clash -- Parental care and relatives conflicts -- Mating structures -- intercourse allocation -- Social behaviours: altruism to spite -- Cooperation -- Altruism and clash within the social bugs -- verbal exchange and indications -- end
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Additional resources for An introduction to behavioural ecology
1 THE OPTIMAL TRADE-OFF BETWEEN SURVIVAL AND REPRODUCTIVE EFFORT (PIANKA AND PARKER, 1975; BELL, 1980) The more effort an individual puts into reproduction, the lower its chances of survival, so the lower its expectation of future reproductive success. Reproductive costs include allocation of resources to reproduction which would otherwise have been spent on own growth and survival and the increased risks entailed in reproduction, such as exposure to predators. The optimal life history depends on the shape of the curve relating profits in terms of present offspring to costs in terms of future offspring.
C) Cause and effect Consider the observation that weaver birds with a diet of seeds go about in flocks. Our explanation was that seed eating selects for flocking because this is the best way to find a patchy food supply. However, we could equally well have suggested that predation selects for flocking and, as a consequence, the birds are forced to select locally abundant food so all the flock can get enough to eat. In this case a diet of seeds is a consequence, or effect, of flocking, not a cause.
Some responded little to annual variation in temperature whereas others showed a marked response (Fig. 10b). Furthermore, the variation in plasticity is heritable. In theory, then, the more plastic genotypes should now be favoured by natural selection. Why do the Dutch and British tits differ? , 2008). For example, if only photoperiod was used as a cue, then individuals would not breed earlier in warmer springs. By contrast, if both birds and caterpillars responded to temperature, or some other common environmental cue, then individual tits would automatically track any yearly variation in caterpillar emergence.