Analysis and Design of Quadrature Oscillators (Analog by Luis B. Oliveira, Jorge R. Fernandes, Igor M. Filanovsky,

By Luis B. Oliveira, Jorge R. Fernandes, Igor M. Filanovsky, Chris J. M. Verhoeven, Manuel M. Silva

The subsequent are a few positive factors of study and layout of Quadrature Oscillators make it various from the present literature on digital oscillators: (1) specialise in quadrature oscillators with actual quadrature and coffee phase-noise, required by means of smooth communique platforms; (2) an in depth comparative research of quadrature LC and RC oscillators, together with cross-coupled LC quasi-sinusoidal oscillators, cross-coupled RC leisure oscillators, a quadrature RC oscillator-mixer, and two-integrator oscillators; (3) an intensive research of the impression of mismatches at the phase-error and the phase-noise; (4) the realization that quadrature RC oscillators could be a useful replacement to LC oscillators while quarter and value could be minimized (in cross-coupled RC oscillators either the quadrature-error and phase-noise are lowered, while in LC oscillators the coupling raises the phase-noise.

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23). Thus, a mixer that converts directly to the baseband has very stringent IP2 requirements. Another specification concerning distortion is the 1-dB compression point. This is the output power when it is one dB less than the output power of an extrapolated linear amplifier with the same gain (Fig. 24). The conversion gain of a mixer can be defined in terms of either voltage or power. – The voltage conversion gain is defined as the ratio of rms voltage of the IF signal to the rms voltage of the RF signal.

It is an important measure of the performance of the mixer, indicating how much noise is added by it. The noise factor of a noiseless system is unity, and it is higher in real systems. 29) The intermodulation distortion (IMD) is a measure of the mixers linearity. Intermodulation distortion is the result of two or more signals interacting in a non linear device to produce additional unwanted signals. Two interacting signals will produce intermodulation products at the sum and difference of integer multiples of the original frequencies.

In this book, we will study closed-loop architectures, which have better quadrature accuracy. 5 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Relaxation Oscillator . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 High Level Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 Circuit Implementation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Quadrature Relaxation Oscillator .

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