By Flajolet P., Sedgewick R.

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For instance, the notation (23) S EQ=k (or simply S EQk ), S EQ>k , S EQ1 . k refers to sequences whose number of components are exactly k, larger than k, or in the interval 1 . k respectively. In particular, k times S EQk (B) := B × · · · × B ≡ B k , S EQ≥k (B) = j≥k Bj ∼ = B k × S EQ(B), MS ETk (B) := S EQk (B)/R. Similarly, S EQodd , S EQeven will denote sequences with an odd or even number of components, and so on. 30 I. COMBINATORIAL STRUCTURES AND ORDINARY GENERATING FUNCTIONS Translations for such restricted constructions are available, as shown generally in Subsection I.

0, β j ∈ B , which matches our intuition as to what sequences should be. ) It is then readily checked that the construction A = S EQ(B) defines a proper class satisfying the finiteness condition for sizes if and only if B contains no object of size 0. From the definition of size for sums and products, it I. 2. ADMISSIBLE CONSTRUCTIONS AND SPECIFICATIONS 25 follows that the size of an object α ∈ A is to be taken as the sum of the sizes of its components: α = (β1 , . . , βℓ ) ⇒ |α| = |β1 | + · · · + |βℓ |.

Consider the class U of “non-empty” triangulations of the n-gon, that is, we exclude the 2-gon and the corresponding “empty” triangulation of size 0. Then U = T \ {ǫ} admits the specification U = ∇ + (∇ × U) + (U × ∇) + (U × ∇ × U) which also leads to the Catalan numbers via U = z(1 + U )2 , so that U (z) = (1 − 2z − √ 1 − 4z)/(2z) ≡ T (z) − 1. ✁ I. 4. Exploiting generating functions and counting sequences. In this book we are going to see altogether more than a hundred applications of the symbolic method.