Animal Groups in Three Dimensions: How Species Aggregate by Julia K. Parrish, William M. Hamner

By Julia K. Parrish, William M. Hamner

Colleges of fish, flocks of birds, and swarms of bugs are examples of 3-dimensional aggregation. masking either invertebrate and vertebrate species, the authors examine this pervasive organic phenomenon via quite a few disciplines, from physics to arithmetic to biology. the 1st part is dedicated to some of the tools, often optical and acoustic, used to gather three-d info over the years. the second one part specializes in analytical equipment used to quantify development, staff kinetics, and interindividual interactions in the staff. The part on behavioral ecology and evolution bargains with the services of aggregative habit from the viewpoint of an inherently egocentric person member. the ultimate part makes use of types to explain how team dynamics on the person point creates emergent trend on the point of the crowd.

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Acknowledgments The author would like to thank the National Science Foundation for supporting this work under grant OCE 89-143000, the NOAA National Sea Grant College Program, Department of Commerce, under grant number NA89AA-D-SD128, project OE-15 through the California Sea Grant College, and the Office of Naval Research, grant number N0014-89-1419. The author would also like to thank Andrew W. Palowitch and Duncan E. McGehee for contributing to this chapter and Kenneth Foote for reviewing an early version of the manuscript.

1). If the complete structure of each of these parallel sections can be obtained, the entire three-dimensional object can be reconstructed. Transmission techniques achieve this goal by passing natural or artificially created radiation through an object (Fig. 1) and projecting a shadow image onto a recording device. 1) where the path integral dl is taken over the radiation path through the object and f(r) is the object density resulting in the attenuation of the radiation. In the easiest case, scattering will be small compared to attenuation and radiation will 20 Jules S.

This chapter is an introduction to photogrammetry and its application to biological measurement as it relates to the analysis of an animal's position and motion within a three-dimensional aggregation of similar individuals. The principle analytical methods of measuring three-dimensional coordinates from two photographic images, the geometric basis of stereovision, and three-dimensional visualization are described. Although I concentrate on two-camera systems, the principals can be extended to multistation photogrammetry.

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