By Karl S. Drlica, David S. Perlin
As pathogenic micro organism evolve, antibiotic resistance is spreading, compromising our skill to manage and deal with infectious ailments. Antibiotic Resistance completely illuminates this important factor for healthcare pros, researchers, scholars, and policymakers. major investigators clarify what resistance is, the way it emerges, which human actions give a contribution, and the way to bolster our defenses.
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Extra info for Antibiotic Resistance: Understanding and Responding to an Emerging Crisis
49 Data of this type have led to the near universal acceptance of HIV as the cause of AIDS. Modern Biology Has Refined Koch’s Postulates We continue to face new types of infection as we modify our environment. Diseases once restricted to tree-tops (monkeypox) have come to ground as we chop down forests, Lyme disease spreads with deer in backyards that were formerly woods, and hantavirus jumps to humans when rodents invade homes. 50 Protein-based diseases require new paradigms, because in all other cases the disease-causing agents contain nucleic acids whose replication is easy to understand.
Helminths are multicellular worms that invade our bodies; pinworm and hookworm are examples. Viruses lack the molecular machinery for independent life, but when they penetrate our cells, they can force the cells to make viral components. Those components assemble to form progeny virus particles that are then released to infect other host cells. A common feature of these diverse life forms is their ability to multiply inside our bodies and form large populations. Pathogen Numbers Are Measured by Microscopy and by Detecting Growth To understand and control pathogens, we must have a way to count them—we need to know whether an antibiotic reduces pathogen numbers.
Tuberculosis, rifampicin is highly lethal and serves as a major, first-line antituberculosis agent. Rifampicin is also active with S. aureus, and it is being drawn into clinical practice for MRSA. However, resistant mutants arise so often with S. aureus that rifampicin is rarely used in the absence of a second antibiotic. Inhibitors of cell wall synthesis include the penicillins and their more recent derivatives, collectively called β-lactams. Treatment of growing bacteria with penicillin causes the cells to break apart: A turbid (cloudy) culture of susceptible bacteria will become clear.