Arguments and Metaphors in Philosophy by Daniel Cohen

By Daniel Cohen

During this ebook, Daniel Cohen explores the connections among arguments and metaphors so much said in philosophy, simply because philosophical discourse is either completely metaphorical and replete with argumentation. The metaphors we use for arguments, in addition to the methods we use metaphors as arguments and in arguments, offers the root for a tripartite theoretical framework for realizing and comparing arguments. There are logical, rhetorical, and dialectical dimensions to arguments, every one delivering norms for behavior, vocabulary for assessment, and standards for fulfillment. In flip, the pointed out roles for arguments typically discourse will be utilized to metaphors, supporting to provide an explanation for what they suggest and the way they paintings. Cohen covers the character of arguments, their modes and constructions, and the foundations in their overview. He additionally addresses the character of metaphors, their position in language and notion, and their connections to arguments, choosing and reconciling arguments' and metaphors' respective roles in philosophy.

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Arguments are rafts on the sea of uncertainty carrying us to the terra firma of truth. Arguments are verbal dances responding to inaudible Gricean rhythms and unknown Jungian syllogisms. Arguments are the mortar holding together the bricks out of which theories are built. Arguments are mental exercises for athletes of the intellect. I t is not hard, I think, to make sense out of any of these metaphors, but it is an amazing ability nonetheless. Interpreting metaphors is nearly the art that creating them is.

This issue is returned to in the final chapter. Danto 1983, p. 67 in Rajchman and West 1985. See Kuhn 1970. Stalnaker 1984 p. x. Rorty 1998, pp. 19-42. Gilbert 1997, p. " While this is one of the general assumptions of coalescent argumentation, it is not equally applicable to all kinds of arguments. 11. Wittgenstein 1961. Russell, in "The Philosophy of Logical Atomism," takes the task of philosophy to describe the world. Analysis is necessary insofar as it reveals the "ultimate constituents" of the world.

The failures that beset argunlents-as-proof are peculiar to that paradigm. They do not really apply to arguments-as-war. An arguer can lose her way, reach the wrong conclusion, or make illicit inferences in adversarial arguments, but these are failures only insofar as they "weaken" the argument and thereby contribute to defeat. Since, as a matter of empirical fact, red herrings, hasty generalizations, and other classical fallacies often do succeed in convincing the audience, they can actually help to win arguments - which is to say that they can strengthen arguments-as-war even as they weaken arguments-as-proof.

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