By Sammy C. Letema
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Extra resources for Assessing Sanitary Mixtures in East African Cities
C The numbers in italics indicate the areas that have attained requisite population density for sewerage. Population density threshold for sewerage is 200 P/ha adopted from the master plan (NWSC, 2004). 4. Kampala 2030 structure of sewerage type, coverage and catchments (NWSC, 2004). Construction of Kinawataka will be in phases. The Trunk sewer, Mbuya I, Mutungo, Naguro and the STW is scheduled for 2023, whereas sewer lines for Ntinda I and Mbuya II are scheduled at a later stage depending on urban and demographic developments (NWSC, 2004).
In addition, flows from maturation ponds are also used for irrigation of vegetables and tomatoes, with the farmers noting that treated wastewater contains nutrients and prevent pest. However, also the hygienic quality of the effluent is not known. 2 Determinants of sewerage development areas This section examines the criteria that are utilised to establish sewerage areas in Kampala and Kisumu, water service level and population and baseflow density. a. Water service level In Kampala, introduction of piped water in 1927 was aimed at providing adequate water supply for non-African (European and Asian) population residing in Kampala township, Makerere college, Mulago hospital, the mission stations of Namirembe and Rubaga and Luzira prison in order to allow for future water-borne sewerage (Nilsson, 2006).
The poor state of affairs is attributed to the socio-technical structures for water supply and sewerage that has remained largely unchanged since colonial time. This counts especially for institutional arrangments, standards and technological choices (Nilsson, 2006; Nilsson & Nyanchaga, 2008; K’Akumu, 2006), against dynamic and differentiated socio-spatial structure. While significant steps have been made at the turn of the millenium to modernise technical and institutional arrangements of service provision, little is known about how they are reconfiguring sanitation practices and what structures are emerging.