By Commission on Life Sciences Staff
Read Online or Download Assessment of the U.S. Outer Continental Shelf Environmental Studies Program : Physical Oceanography PDF
Similar oceanography books
The Near-Surface Layer of the sea offers a accomplished account of the constitution and dynamics of this crucial part of the sea. The publication develops the correct physics and thermodynamics intensive. distinctive therapy is given to the skin microlayer, upper-ocean turbulence, advantageous thermohaline constitution, coherent constructions, excessive wind-speed regime, and to sensible purposes.
This e-book offers a modern evaluation of the world’s oceans. It identifies and describes many of the difficulties which proceed to threaten environmental caliber and biodiversity, starting from overfishing to the advanced adjustments that could ensue because of worldwide weather swap. Written by means of scientists operating on the Greenpeace examine Laboratories on the collage of Exeter within the united kingdom, it's dependent upon the most recent released clinical details.
Large-scale winds and currents are inclined to stability Coriolis and strain gradient forces. The time evolution of those winds and currents is the topic of the quasi-geostrophic idea. bankruptcy 1 provides options and equations of classical inertial fluid mechanics. bankruptcy 2 bargains with the equations of thermodynamics that shut the governing equations of the fluids.
Synthesizing a long time of labor, yet up to date, this ebook specializes in organism-level responses to pollution via marine animals, customarily crustaceans, molluscs, and fishes. Emphasizing results on physiological procedures (feeding/digestion, respiratory, osmoregulation), life-cycle (reproduction [including endocrine disruption], embryo improvement, larval improvement, developmental procedures later in existence (growth, regeneration, molting, calcification, cancer), and behavior, the e-book additionally covers bioaccumulation and detoxing of contaminants, and the advance of tolerance.
- World Atlas of Seagrasses
- Oceanographical Engineering
- Ocean Forecasting
- Seafloor Geomorphology as Benthic Habitat. GeoHAB Atlas of Seafloor Geomorphic Features and Benthic Habitats
- The Facts on File Dictionary of Marine Science
Extra info for Assessment of the U.S. Outer Continental Shelf Environmental Studies Program : Physical Oceanography
Early contract efforts focused on tides as the principal forcing mechanism. Later studies have taken a more comprehensive view of the circulation. Simulations of oil-spill trajectories have generally followed the same methodology as in the OSRA model; however, the exact formulation has depended on how the contractor chose to describe the circulation field. An additional complication in Alaskan waters is the role of ice and its influence on oil-spill trajectories (ice occurs only occasionally in coastal waters of New England and nowhere else in coastal waters of the contiguous United States).
The dependence of stirring and mixing on the complex relationship between the Lagrangian and Eulerian spectra implies that turbulent mixing is scale-dependent: the inferred rate of mixing depends strongly on the range of scales that are resolved. In addition, turbulent diffusion processes do not always transport material at a rate proportional to the larger-scale gradient, nor is the flux vector necessarily parallel to the mean gradient. Although it is almost universal practice to model subgrid-scale exchange processes as a kind of diffusion, that practice may be inappropriate, especially in a region with strong and variable topography and density fronts.
STATE-OF-THE-ART OVERVIEW: PHYSICAL OCEANOGRAPHIC PROCESSES, FEATURES, AND METHODS OF POTENTIAL IMPORTANCE TO THE ESP 31 ocean temperatures, the mean horizontal temperature in the planetary boundary layer, and the surface roughness. Their work is a good example showing the significant sensitivity of numerical model results to the data used as input. The difficulties of converting wind speed and direction to wind stress by determining a drag coefficient usually can be overcome. However, specification of the wind field based on observations from coastal stations, ships, sea-level atmospheric pressure, low-level cloud motions, satellite microwave scatterometry, and instrumented buoys usually is inadequate and is the limiting factor to determining the surface stress distribution.