By Eric B. Kraus, Joost A. Businger
With either the growing to be value of integrating reviews of air-sea interplay and the curiosity within the normal challenge of worldwide warming, the looks of the second one version of this renowned textual content is principally welcome. completely up-to-date and revised, the authors have retained the available, complete expository variety that uncommon the sooner version. themes comprise the kingdom of subject close to the interface, radiation, floor wind waves, turbulent move close to the interface, the planetary boundary layer, atmospherically-forced perturbations within the oceans, and large-scale forcing by way of sea floor buoyancy fluxes. This booklet can be welcomed via scholars and execs in meteorology, actual oceanography, physics and ocean engineering.
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Extra resources for Atmosphere-Ocean Interaction (Oxford Monographs on Geology and Geophysics)
The term convection is reserved for buoyancy-driven transport. In the free atmosphere and in the open ocean, the convective flux is much larger than the molecular diffusion. Like the latter, it can transfer matter when the mean mass flux pUi is zero or has a quite different direction. 16 ATMOSPHERE-OCEAN INTERACTION Near the sea surface, vertical variations are much more pronounced then variations along the horizontal. 9) in the form where E is the vertical transport of vapour mass per unit area and unit time.
It specifies the energy involved in an isothermal expansion of the vapour during which the pressure drops from es to e. Alternatively, it can be said that the energy needed for evaporation is provided by the liquid water and, consequently, the water cools. 3 Colligative properties The saturation vapour pressure over saline water, es(s), is lower than over fresh water. This is one of the 'colligative properties' of a solution; others being the freezing point depression, boiling point elevation, and osmotic pressure.
2 Isotropic turbulence Isotropic turbulence is a state of complete randomness in which the statistical feature of the motion exhibits no preference for any direction. This symmetry permits us to specify the wavenumber spectrum as the function of a single parameter. A relation with locally observable frequencies can be established if the fluctuations are imbedded in some mean wind or current and if they retain their individual character while being swept past a fixed observation point. With U denoting the velocity of the advective stream and / a streamwise wavenumber, we have where w is a locally established cyclical frequency.