Atrocities, Massacres, and War Crimes: An Encyclopedia, by Alexander Mikaberidze

By Alexander Mikaberidze

The 400-plus entries in "Atrocities, Massacres, and conflict Crimes: An Encyclopedia" supply available and concise details at the tricky topic of abject human violence devoted on all continents. The entries during this two-volume paintings describe atrocities, massacres, and battle crimes devoted within the twentieth century, thereby documenting how people have time and again confirmed their power to dedicate awful acts of inhumanity even in really contemporary occasions and in the glossy period. The encyclopedia covers nations, treaties, and phrases; profiles people who have been officially indicted for warfare crimes in addition to those that have dedicated mass atrocities and long gone unpunished; and addresses human rights violations, crimes opposed to humanity, and crimes opposed to peace.

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On April 10, a mob killed four Europeans, attacked a woman missionary, and burned property. Meanwhile, the British administration in Punjab proved helpless and called in the troops. The next day, a detachment consisting of British soldiers and Gurkhas led by Gen. R. E. H. Dyer arrived in Amritsar. Dyer prohibited all public manifestations and imposed a night curfew. However, those measures did not calm the population. On April 13, an estimated 10,000 people gathered in the Jallianwala Bagh, a walled garden.

The term apartheid was coined by Afrikaner intellectuals during the 1930s. It was a doctrine rooted in the social Darwinism of the era and the theology of the Dutch Reform Church, which held that each race had a distinct culture, heritage, and divine destiny. To fulfill that destiny, those races had to be permitted to develop independently of other groups. Racial mixing, the doctrine held, would weaken the racial community and hinder its appropriate development. In 1948, the white supremacist National Party of South Africa won a majority in the South African general election.

The confrontation emerged from the activities of a Jewish organization that called itself the Temple Trustees. The organization sought to occupy the Temple Mount and to begin construction on the Third Temple there. Quite naturally, Arabs and Palestinians were outraged by what they viewed as the potential desecration of a significant holy shrine. In the days leading up to October 8, the Temple Trustees announced plans for a mass march to the Temple Mount, the objective of which would be the laying of a cornerstone for a new temple.

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