Authoritarianism in an Age of Democratization by Jason Brownlee

By Jason Brownlee

Faraway from sweeping the globe uniformly, the 'third wave of democratization' left burgeoning republics and resilient dictatorships in its wake. using greater than a yr of unique fieldwork in Egypt, Iran, Malaysia, and the Philippines, Jason Brownlee exhibits that the combined checklist of modern democratization is healthier deciphered via a old and institutional method of authoritarian rule. Exposing the inner companies that constitution elite clash, Brownlee demonstrates why the severe soft-liners wanted for democratic transitions were dormant in Egypt and Malaysia yet outspoken in Iran and the Philippines. by way of developing how ruling events originated and why they abate swap, Brownlee illuminates the matter of latest authoritarianism and informs the advertising of sturdy democracy.

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Such regimes stand testament to Joseph Schumpeter’s contention that “social structures, types, and attitudes are coins that do not readily melt” (1947: 12). Military regimes in Latin 0:22 P1: KNP 0521869515c01 CUNY736/Brownlee 22 0 521 86951 X May 8, 2007 Authoritarianism in an Age of Democratization America withdrew from power, providing a second chance for democracy to grow in a number of countries with previously weak but substantial records in representative government. The fall of dictatorships in the Eastern Bloc and the collapse of the Soviet Union brought both democratization (in those states closest to continental Europe) and authoritarian relapse (in Russia and Central Asia) (Kitschelt 1999).

The choices made by the leaders of future transitions will be best informed by an accurate portrayal of the slow-moving historical and rapidly changing agent-activated components of democratization. Once we recognize that both macro- and micro-level explanations are invaluable for illuminating when and why regimes become vulnerable to human agency, the question then becomes when each of these two different 0:22 P1: KNP 0521869515c01 CUNY736/Brownlee 0 521 86951 X The Political Origins of Durable Authoritarianism May 8, 2007 23 approaches should be employed.

In the context of rulers’ democratic ruse, differences in opposition performance provide the second contrast that merits explanation: Why did some elections become unexpected vehicles for opposition success and the activation of new alliances for regime change? The answer to this question is nested in the legacies of the first inquiry: The divergence in institutional development over the preceding years. The political antecedents of the third wave determined the vulnerability of regimes to opposition challenges and continue to structure the distribution of power between rulers and ruled.

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