By Abul K. Abbas MBBS, Andrew H. H. Lichtman MD PhD, Shiv Pillai MBBS PhD
Understand all of the crucial thoughts in immunology with Basic Immunology: features and problems of the Immune System! This concise, centred textual content offers you an up-to-date, obtainable advent to the workings of the human immune process.
- Efficiently grasp the immunology info you would like through clinically targeted content material, logically equipped by means of mechanism.
- Apply what you will have realized to real-world occasions by referencing the appendix of medical instances.
- Enhance your learning with assistance from a number of full-color illustrations and invaluable tables, in addition to precis bins, assessment questions, and a thesaurus of immunology terms.
- Study immunology anywhere! on-line entry to www.StudentConsult.com opens the door to an improved ebook and ancillary components!
- Visualize complicated immunology strategies with a very up-to-date artwork program.
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Additional info for Basic Immunology: Functions and Disorders of the Immune System, 4e
Furthermore, the receptors of the 26 Chapter 2 – Innate Immunity adaptive immune system are clonally distributed, meaning that each clone of lymphocytes (B cells and T cells) has a different receptor specific for a particular antigen. In contrast, in the innate immune system the receptors are nonclonally distributed; that is, identical receptors are expressed on all the cells of a particular type, such as macrophages. Therefore, many cells of innate immunity may recognize and respond to the same microbe.
How do the different components of innate immunity function to combat different types of microbes? 3. How do innate immune reactions stimulate adaptive immune responses? GENERAL FEATURES AND SPECIFICITY OF INNATE IMMUNE RESPONSES The innate immune system performs its defensive functions with a restricted set of reactions, which are more limited than the more varied and specialized responses of adaptive immunity. The specificity of innate immunity is also different in several respects from the specificity of lymphocytes, the recognition systems of adaptive immunity (Fig.
Adaptive immunity is mediated by lymphocytes stimulated by microbial antigens, requires clonal expansion and differentiation of the lymphocytes before it is effective, and responds more effectively against each successive exposure to a microbe. ✹ Lymphocytes are the cells of adaptive immunity and are the only cells with clonally distributed receptors with fine specificities for different antigens. ✹ Adaptive immunity consists of humoral immunity, in which antibodies neutralize and eradicate extracellular microbes and toxins, and cell-mediated immunity, in which T lymphocytes eradicate intracellular microbes.