By Bridget Joan Stutchbury; Eugene S Morton
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Extra resources for Behavioral ecology of tropical birds
Interspecific territoriality sometimes occurs where closely related species (congeners) compete for year-long territories in the most productive habitats. Robinson and Terborgh (1995) documented interspecific territoriality using reciprocal heterospecific playbacks in 10 of 12 species of non-oscine passerines in Peru. Most of these had non-overlapping territories. Some of the same species do not have interspecific territoriality elsewhere (Stouffer 1997). Many insectivorous species that are permanently territorial feed in mixed-species flocks (Powell 1985).
Long-term studies of cooperative breeding have been done on tropical birds as diverse as the Pied Kingfisher, Ceryle rudis (Reyer 1990), Green Woodhoopoe, Phoeniculus purpureus (Ligon and Ligon 1990), White-fronted Bee-eater, Merops bullockoides (Emlen 1981), Galapagos Hawk, Buteo galapogoensis (Faaborg 1986), Groove-billed Ani, Crotophaga sulcirostris (Vehrencamp 1978), and Stripe-backed Wren, Campylorhynchus nuchalis (Rabenold 1990). g. Brown 1987). First, why do sexually mature individuals choose to delay breeding and stay home?
Species White-bearded Manakin a Checker-throated Antwren b Slaty Antshrike c Dusky Antbird d Spotted Antbird e Long-tailed Hermit f Medium Ground Finchg Cactus Ground Finch h Hawaii Akepa i Long-tailed ManakinJ Green-rumped Parrotlet k Years N Survival (%) 9 14 7 8 10 4 16 16 5 8 10 182 40* 50 25* >100 105 284 210 82 46 >500 82% 75% 54% 82% 81% 52% 78% 81% 79% 78% 68% a: Manacus manacus (Snow 1962, Snow and Lill 1974); b: Myrmotherula fulviventris (Greenberg and Gradwohl 1997); c: Thamnophilus atrinucha (Greenberg and Gradwohl 1986); d: Cercomacra tyrannina (Morton and Stutchbury 2000); e: Hylophylax naevioides (Willis 1974); f: Phaethornis superciliosis (Stiles 1992); g: Geospiza fortis (Grant and Grant 1992); h: Geospiza scandens (Grant and Grant 1992); i: Loxops coccineus (Lepson and Freed 1995); j: Chiroxiphia linearis (McDonald 1993); k: Forpus passerinus (Sandercock et aL 2000).