Berossus and Genesis, Manetho and Exodus. Hellenistic by Russell Gmirkin

By Russell Gmirkin

Berossus and Genesis, Manetho and Exodus proposes a provocative new idea concerning the date and situations of the composition of the Pentateuch. Gmirkin argues that the Hebrew Pentateuch used to be composed in its entirety approximately 273-272 BCE through Jewish students at Alexandria that later traditions credited with the Septuagint translation of the Pentateuch into Greek. the first proof is literary dependence of Gen. 1-11 on Berossus' Babyloniaca (278 BCE) and of the Exodus tale on Manetho's Aegyptiaca (c. 285-280 BCE), and the geo-political facts inside the desk of countries. a few symptoms aspect to a provenance of Alexandria, Egypt for no less than a few parts of the Pentateuch. That the Pentateuch, drawing on literary assets chanced on on the nice Library of Alexandria, used to be composed at nearly an identical date because the Septuagint translation, offers compelling facts for a few point of conversation and collaboration among the authors of the Pentateuch and the Septuagint students at Alexandria's Museum. The past due date of the Pentateuch, as established by means of literary dependence on Berossus and Manetho, has vital effects: the definitive overthrow of the chronological framework of the Documentary speculation, and a past due, third century BCE date for significant parts of the Hebrew Bible which convey literary dependence at the Pentateuch.

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Additional resources for Berossus and Genesis, Manetho and Exodus. Hellenistic Histories and the Date of the Pentateuch

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Third, Num 6:24-26 comes from P, which is usually regarded as postexilic under the Documentary Hypothesis and would thus postdate the amulets from Ketef Hinnom. However, some have used these amulets as evidence of a pre-exilic date for P. But it has long been recognized that the benedictions in Num 6:24-26 derive from an earlier oral source. 27 A passage in the second amulet containing a parallel to Deut 7:9 may also have drawn on a common oral formula. E. They also cannot prove the existence of a written Pentateuch in the pre-exilic period.

Barkay, "Silver Plaques from Ketef Hinnom," 180. 27. Wellhausen, Prolegomena, 392-401, 438. 28. Yardeni, "Remarks on the Priestly Blessings," 181; cf. Barkay, "Silver Plaques from Ketef Hinnom," 175; Levine, Numbers 1-20, 244. 2. The Documentary Hypothesis+ 29 authorship and basic credibility are subject to debate. 29 The earliest surviving biblical texts are those of Qumran, dating to no earlier than the late third century BCE. The earliest externally dated edition of the Pentateuch of which we possess later copies is the Greek Septuagint version, translated from the Hebrew under Ptolemy II Philadelphus (282-246 BCE).

275-76. 82. E. Qimron, The Hebrew of the Dead Sea Scrolls (Atlanta: Scholars Press, 1986), 117. 83. It should be observed that what are considered historical data by one generation are often regarded as doubtful historiography by the next. For Wellhausen, Jewish history began with Moses (Prolegomena, 432); subsequent generations of scholars have successively shifted the starting point of reliable Jewish history to the Davidic period, the Divided Monarchy or the Persian period. The ever-changing base of "historical" data illustrates the dangers of placing too much weight on modern historical constructs, which may rely on sources that may subsequently be shown to be less than factual.

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