By Sorin Antohi, Vladimir Tismaneanu
The 10th anniversary of the cave in of communism in crucial and japanese Europe is the foundation for this article which displays upon the earlier ten years and what lies forward for the long run. a global team of teachers and public intellectuals, together with former dissidents and lively politicians, have interaction in an trade at the antecedents, motives, contexts, meanings and legacies of the 1989 revolutions. The members deal with a number of concerns together with liberal democracy and its enemies; modernity and discontent; monetary reforms and their social effect; ethnicity; nationalism and faith; geopolitics; electoral platforms and political strength; ecu integration; and the death of Yugoslavia.
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Additional resources for Between Past and Future: The Revolution of 1989 and Their Aftermath
For the velvet revolutions of 1989 were surely world historical events—even if, as Jiirgen Habermas put it, they were "rectifying revolutions", reiterating classical themes of liberal democ racy. The overturning of communism, first in Eastern Europe and then in Russia, signified the death of revolutionary Marxism and transformed the political geography of Europe and, indeed, the world. The year 1989 seemed to inaugurate a new world, or at least a new world order. This at least was the message of Francis Fukuyama's much-cited "The End of History", which echoed the western media in proclaiming the global advent of liberal democracy.
8 See for example, Bikhu Parekh, Gandhi (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1997). 9 See A. P. d'Entreves, Natural Law (London: Hutchinson, 1951). 10 Ernest Gellner, Conditions of Liberty (London: Penguin, 1994); Michael Ignatieff, "On Civil Society", Foreign Affairs 74:2 (1995): 128-36. 11 Jessica Mathews, "Power Shift", Foreign Affairs 76:1 (1997): 50-66. 12 Maciej Zieba, Po Szkodzie? PrzedSzkoda? (Krakow: Znak, 1996). 13 Stephen Toulmin, Cosmopolis (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1992).
These differences are reinforced by the prospects of "Euro-Atlantic" integration, the Central European code word for the double enlargement On Two Models of Exit from Communism 23 of NATO and the EU, which has been the prime foreign policy objective of the new democracies. Both institutions insist on democratic conditionality and, as the Slovak case showed, they mean it. Paradoxically, it is NATO that tends to be perceived in Central Europe as a "valueinfused institution" (A. Smolar) whereas the European Union tends to be identified primarily with economics and a legal framework.