Beyond the Beginnings: Literacy Interventions for Upper by Angela L Carrasquillo

By Angela L Carrasquillo

The publication addresses the curricular, educational, and evaluation wishes of higher grade easy lecturers who're suffering to advertise literacy improvement of their English language freshmen. those scholars have already been transitioned, but fight with the elevated literacy calls for within the top grades.

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Extra info for Beyond the Beginnings: Literacy Interventions for Upper Elementary English Language Learners (Bilingual Education and Bilingualism, 46)

Example text

2 Cummins’ framework of second language proficiency Source: Baker (2001: 172) cognitive demand that is placed on individuals as they process information and complete a communicative task. Each quadrant depicted in the figure represents the intersection of varying levels of linguistic support and cognitive demands. 3. To account for how second language learners can use knowledge gained in one language to support learning in another language, Cummins proposed the ‘Interdependence Hypothesis’. According to Cummins (1984), because there is a Common Underlying Proficiency (CUP) that goes across languages – a reciprocal relationship exists between languages.

Sentences read and written tend to be simple semantic and syntactic structures. Sentences read and written become more varied, reflecting complex semantic and syntactic structures. A limited range of vocabulary is encountered, based largely on the child’s spoken language. A wider range of vocabulary is encountered; more use of technical and disciplinary terms and concepts not found in child’s spoken language. Reading and writing about known concepts and ideas. Reading and writing about new concepts and ideas.

A focus on additional disciplines such as science, social science, and the use of mathematical story problems. More teacher responsibility for student– text transaction. More student responsibility for student– text transaction. learning occurs. The focus shifts from learning to read and write to reading and writing to learn. This does not mean that all reading and writing instruction ceases, but that such instruction is not typically extended into the content areas of the social sciences and sciences.

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