By Carol Lalli, Timothy R. Parsons
This renowned undergraduate textbook bargains scholars a company grounding within the basics of organic oceanography. in addition to a transparent and available textual content, studying is stronger with quite a few illustrations together with a color part, thorough bankruptcy summaries, and questions with solutions and reviews behind the booklet. the great assurance of this ebook encompasses the homes of seawater which impact lifestyles within the ocean, type of marine environments and organisms, phytoplankton and zooplankton, marine nutrients webs, better marine animals (marine mammals, seabirds and fish), existence at the seafloor, and how within which people have an effect on marine ecosystems. the second one version has been completely up to date, together with a lot info to be had for the 1st time in a publication at this point. there's additionally a brand new bankruptcy on human affects - from harvesting great quantities of fish, toxins, and intentionally or by accident shifting marine organisms to new environments. This ebook enhances the Open college Oceanography sequence, additionally released by way of Butterworth-Heinemann, and is a collection textual content for the Open college 3rd point direction, S330. a number one undergraduate textual content New bankruptcy on human affects - a hugely topical topic improved color plate part
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Additional info for Biological oceanography: an introduction
Micans dividing; (d) Protopehdinium crassipes, (e) Gymnodinium abbreviatum, (f) Dinophysis acuta, and (g) Gonyau/ax fragi/is. 2. 2). g. 4). There are an estimated 1500 to 1800 species of free-Uving, planktonic dinoflagellates. Conventionally, dinoflagellates are divided into thecate species, which have a relatively thick cellulose cell wall called a theca, and naked forms which lack this structure. Taxonomically, the dinoflagellates are separated into the Desmophyceae and the Dinophyceae. 3a, b).
13 Review what you have learned about abiotic environmental factors in this Chapter and describe the deep-sea environment below 2000 m in terms of light, salinity, temperature, pressure, and relative density. CHAPTER 3 I I PHYTOPLANKTON AND PRIMARY PRODUCTION The great majority of the plants in the ocean are various types of planktonic, Unicellular algae, collectively called phytoplankton. Although some phytoplankton are large enough to be collected in fine-mesh nets, many of these microscopic plants can only be collected by filtering or centrifuging sizable volumes of seawater.
They include such groups as reef-building corals, which require a minimum temperature of 20°C, as well as those species that are restricted to cold waters. The geographic range of cold-stenothermic species may be very wide; for example, some species that are found at shallow depths in the Arctic are also present at depths of 2000-3000 m in Equatorial areas where similar cold temperatures prevail. 3 SALINITY Salinity refers to the salt content of seawater. For our purposes, salinity can be simply defined as the total weight (in grammes) of inorganic salts dissolved in 1 kg of seawater.