Birds. Brain and Behavior by Irving J. Goodman and Martin W. Schein (Eds.)

By Irving J. Goodman and Martin W. Schein (Eds.)

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Additional resources for Birds. Brain and Behavior

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Notes on the avian optic lobe {tectum and nucleus mesencephalicus lateralis) Brain, 1963, 86, 363-372. Cobb, S. A comparison of the size of an auditory nucleus (n. mesencephalicus lateralis, pars dorsalis) with the size of the optic lobe in twenty-seven species of birds. Journal of Comparative Neurology, 1964, 122, 271-280. Diamond I. T. & Hall, W. C. Evolution of neocortex. Science, 1969. 164, 251-262. Donner, K. O. The visual acuity of some passerine birds. Acta Zoologica Fennica, 1951,66, 3-40.

The olfactory bulb is rudimentary in many avian species, corresponding to the frequently microsmatic nature of birds, and the prominent and highly developed cerebral hemispheres are lissencephalic (Fig. 1). Other notable external characteristics are the median cerebellum and in particular the large, laterally displaced optic lobes ; such impressive tectal development undoubtedly reflects the predominance of the visual system in many birds. The brainstem topography and the spinal cord are both representative of the general vertebrate pattern with the exception of the large rhomboid sinus and glycogen body found in the lumbosacral region of the cord.

Another presumptive source of motor fibers is the column of von Lenhossék which is located in the lateral part of the upper cervical gray at the level of the central canal. These neurons are considered to be cells of origin of motor fibers exiting via the dorsal roots. Running throughout the entire cord at the surface of the lateral funiculus at its junction with the ventral funiculus is the marginal paragriseal cell column, and at lumbosacral levels this cell group protrudes into the white matter to form the accessory lobes of Lachi.

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