By Tim Mälzer
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Book Page 14 Monday, April 28, 2008 2:34 PM Renal Renal Oral cefpodoxime proxetil Renal Renal Oral Oral Oral amoxicillin amoxicillin/ clavulanate dicloxacillin IV, oral IV aztreonam IV Oral cephalexin ampicillin IV, oral cefuroxime ampicillin/ sulbactam Renal IV ceftriaxone Renal Renal Renal Renal Renal Renal Biliary, renal Renal Oral IV cefprozil ceftazidime Renal IV IV Major elimination route (minor component) cefotetan Usual admin. book Page 15 Monday, April 28, 2008 2:34 PM 15 16 IV IV IV IV, oral Oral IV, oral IV, oral IV, oral Oral IV, oral IV, oral ticarcillin/ clavulanate ciprofloxacin gemifloxacin levofloxacin moxifloxacin azithromycin clarithromycin clindamycin erythromycin Oral penicillin V piperacillin/ tazobactam IV penicillin G piperacillin IV IV nafcillin Usual admin.
5 18-22 TETRACYCLINES AND GLYCYLCYCLINE Major elimination route (minor component) Oral Usual admin. 8 30 9-11 Poor to fair CSF penetration (poor, fair, good)a ANTIFUNGALS 15 days lipid complex Biliary, fecal IV 4-6 Usual half-life, h amphotericin B Renal Major elimination route (minor component) IV Usual admin. 5-5 Usual half-life, h Poor Good Good Good Good Good Good Good Good Fair Urinary concentration (poor, fair, good) CI Yes Yes CI Yes Yes Yes Yes CI Contraindicated Yes CI Removal by conventional HDb,c,* 19 Antimicrobial Fundamentals Poor=low penetration into central spinal fluid; fair=moderate penetration or good penetration in presence of meningeal inflammation; good=good penetration, regardless of presence of meningeal inflammation.
Not preferred in patients with recent azole therapy without susceptibility testing. 0=Little or no activity; 1=moderate activity, with some resistance noted; 2=good activity; blank box=inadequate data to rank. ) High or increasing rates of resistance reported. Do not use empirically without susceptibility data. a 1-2 1-2b 1-2 itraconazole 0 0 0 fluconazole flucytosine 1 Blastomyces dermatitidis Medication Candida albicans, C tropicalis, C parapsilosis Table 4. book Page 11 Monday, April 28, 2008 2:34 PM 12 0 2c 0 2b 0 amantadine cidofovir entecavir 2c 0 0 2 2c 2c 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 2c ganciclovir interferon alpha lamivudine oseltamivir ribavirin rimantadine tenofovir valacyclovir valganciclovir 0 0 0 0 2 2c 2 2b famciclovir (penciclovir) foscarnet 0 0 1 adefovir 2 VZV 2 HSV acyclovir Medication 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 2d 0 0 2 0 0 0 CMV 0 0 1-2 0 0 0 1 2 0 0 0-1 2 0 0 1 0 HBV Table 5.