Breaking Ocean Waves: Geometry, Structure and Remote Sensing by Eugene A. Sharkov

By Eugene A. Sharkov

This ebook represents the main entire description of the actual findings of an research into the spatio-temporal features of the gravity of breaking waves and the froth job in open sea through equipment and tools of optical and microwave distant sensing.

The research of actual and electrodynamics' houses of the gravity wave breaking techniques and the froth spatio-temporal job is a crucial side of satellite tv for pc oceanography, ocean engineering, air-sea interplay and ocean distant sensing. particularly, the contribution of froth formations of varied varieties to the suggest and the spatio-temporal diversifications of radio emission, back-scattering, IR and optical parameters of the disturbed sea floor is very major. The statistical features of wave breaking and attendant foam forming are extremely important to ocean wave dynamics. The research and size of spatio-temporal features of wave breaking and sea foam formations are of primary value in ocean distant sensing.

Much emphasis is put on the actual facets of breaking approaches essential to degree the probabilities and obstacles of distant sensing equipment in particular commentary circumstances of an oceanic floor. quite a few useful functions and illustrations are supplied from air-borne, ship-borne and laboratory updated experiments.

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Extra info for Breaking Ocean Waves: Geometry, Structure and Remote Sensing (Springer Praxis Books / Geophysical Sciences)

Sample text

Surveying was also carried out from the airplane laboratory IL-14 at an altitude of 400 m and with a surveying scale of M ˆ 1 X 40800. 3. 5). , that of a constant coecient), they can be approximated by the following expressions: 8 0 k < km > > > < BXk À10=3 cos 4 ' k < k < k m 1 SZ …k; '; X† ˆ …2:14† À4 > k k1 < k < k2 > > : 0 k2 < k where k is the magnitude of a wavevector of the stochastic displacements of the surface; ' is the azimuth angle measured from the general direction of an energycarrying component (k~m ˆ ku 210 g À1 ); k1 corresponds to the sea disturbance component, above which the spectrum acquires a nearly isotropic character (k1 $ 6 m À1 ); k2 is the high-frequency cuto€ of a spectrum (k2 $ 1 cm À1 ).

And for k ˆ 8±11 a purely geometrical distribution (the Yule±Farrey distribution) (Feller, 1971; Johnson and Leone, 1977) can be accepted. Physically, this can be interpreted as follows: the mean value of the Poisson distribution (in other words, the number of wave breakings in the given frame of observation) is a stochastic, rather than constant quantity, which possesses, in its turn, a gamma-type statistical distribution. Thus, the Bernoulli scheme for interpreting the results of small frames needs to be complicated by inclusion of additional conditionsÐnamely, the condition that experiments continue until event A occurs n times exactly.

30 are also satis®ed for X > 200 km (Papadimitrakis, 2005a,b) (where c is the phase velocity of a gravity wave corresponding to the spectrum maximum frequency), and for the dimensionless fetch the inequality Xg=u 2Ã > 4 Á 10 7 is met, which characterizes a fully developed sea state according to the data by Volkov (1968). 4 [Ch. 2 Restoration of the spectral characteristics of the sea surface from its optical images To restore the spatial spectral characteristics of the large-scale sea wave ®eld throughout the crossing of measurements, we applied the special technique for restoring the spectral characteristics of a rough surface from its optical images obtained by aerial survey (Lupyan and Sharkov, 1990).

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