Budgeting and Decision Making by Walther L.M., Skousen C.J.

By Walther L.M., Skousen C.J.

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The overall labor variance could result from any combination of having paid laborers at rates equal to, above, or below standard rates, and using more or less direct labor hours than anticipated. In this illustration, AH is the actual hours worked, AR is the actual labor rate per hour, SR is the standard labor rate per hour, and SH is the standard hours for the output achieved. The Total Direct Labor Variance can be separated into the: x Labor Rate Variance: A variance that reveals the difference between the standard rate and actual rate for the actual labor hours worked [(standard rate - actual rate) X actual hours].

For example, a car producer may release the 20X8 models in the middle of 20X7. In such a case, the budget cycle may be more logically geared to match the model year of the cars rather than the actual calendar year. There is nothing to suggest that budgets are only for one year intervals. For purposes of monitoring performance, annual budgets are frequently divided into monthly and quarterly components. This is helpful in monitoring performance on a timely basis. Sometimes, specific amounts within a monthly/quarterly budget are merely proportional amounts of the annual total.

SQ and SP refer to the “standard” quantity and price that was anticipated. As you will soon see, variance analysis can be conducted for each factor of productive input: material, labor, and overhead. For the moment, just focus on the major concept -- variances are simply the differences between actual cost incurred and the standard cost that was appropriate for the achieved production: Variance analysis is the logical examination of the deviations in an attempt to identify areas for improvement.

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