By Lars Landner (auth.), Dr. Lars Landner (eds.)
Hazard overview of a compound (xenobiotic) discharged to the aquatic atmosphere calls for info on either publicity and results to numerous elements of the atmosphere. The multitude of ecological gradients within the Baltic Sea is used as a history instance for discussing the complexity of the difficulty and the necessity for brand new techniques. as a result, this publication makes an attempt to head past the simplistic, standardized momentary laboratory checks commonly used as a foundation for danger evaluation of chemical compounds, and offers powerful emphasis to the translation of ecotoxicological info of their genuine, ecological context, mentioning the necessity to give some thought to the common mortality distribution of the inhabitants less than learn, the function of keystone species and of species with huge ecological niches as opposed to people with slender, really good niches.
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Extra resources for Chemicals in the Aquatic Environment: Advanced Hazard Assessment
The PCBs; P. Larsson 1984) from the aquatic system to the diet of insectivorous birds increases. The arctic tern (Sterna paradisaea) was formerly an inhabitant of the offshore archipelago and a member of the littoral and pelagic food-chains mediated by fish (mainly sticklebacks), crustaceans (amphipods, isopods) and insects. Since the 1960's it has invaded the inshore archipelago (v. Haartman 1982) and, when feeding on emerging midges, shifted its ecological role to become a member of the detritus-based, soft-bottom mediated foodchains in eutrophicated coastal areas.
The ecological significance of such effetcs on the stability, vulnerability and/or recovery of crustacean-dominated soft bottoms is, however, seldom discussed. Ecologically important sublethal effects (such as decreased swimming or burrowing activity) have been observed in Macoma balthica and in Pontoporeia affinis (e. , Leppakoski and Lindstrom 1978; Eldon and Kristoffersson 1978; Lindstrom and Lindstrom 1980a, b). Such changes in the behavior of a species lead to increased predation upon it. These examples illustrate some of the main pathways of accumulation and transport of toxicants through the Baltic subsystems, and show some of the documented effects as well.
However, very little is known about the significance of intermittent exposure and only rarely has this aspect been involved in chemicals testing schemes although the general resilience to chemical stressors in extreme environments is of utmost importance for any possible recovery of the community between naturally induced disturbances. 4 Test Organisms and Test Strategies Only a small number of species living in the Baltic Sea have until now been used in ecotoxicological tests. B. E. Bengtsson (1978) has given a review of the suitability for laboratory testing purposes of 54 species of fish and invertebrates that might be used in northern Baltic conditions.