By Anne E Maczulak
That includes full-color images and line illustrations, this booklet explores tools in pollutants cleanup. It takes readers throughout the step by step means of discovering, checking out, and cleansing up detrimental waste websites, starting with illness review and finishing with a wiped clean and restored physique of land or water.
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Solvents work well for removing PCBs, VOCs, halogenated compounds, and petroleum wastes. Two additional enhancements to soil-washing efficiency are: (1) better surfactants, which are detergent-like liquids, and (2) chelating agents, which are chemicals that grasp charged particles. Laboratory scientists also test new surfactant-chelator mixtures for making soil washing even more effective. Certain hazardous wastes can be chemically treated in the soil before excavation. This on-site treating is called in situ treatment.
36 Cleaning Up the Environment past few years. Without special care, dredging may create more problems than it solves. ” The EPA requires land or water excavation teams to achieve what it calls clean closure before it will designate a site as decontaminated. Clean closure means that the excavated soil has been cleaned and follow-up testing shows that no contaminants remain. The cleanup/treatment methods may differ from site to site, but in the end the EPA decides when the job is finished. Handling Excavated Pollutants The main benefit of in situ treatment is the reduction of the tons of hazardous soil to be hauled away over roads.
32 Cleaning Up the Environment removing hazardous wastes take place in rivers and lakes. The cleanup employs the two following types of dredging methods: (1) mechanical dredging with backhoes in shallow flowing waters or places where the contamination has not spread out within the sediments, and (2) hydraulic dredging with pumps for deeper contamination or when the pollutants have formed a slurry (a type of semisolid) within the sediment. The dredging equipment transfers the contaminated materials onto barges for final disposal by incineration or burial.