Companions in Guilt: Arguments for Ethical Objectivity by H. Lillehammer

By H. Lillehammer

This can be a systematic examine of 'companions in guilt' arguments in ethical philosophy. Lillehammer distinguishes among targeted types of those, which he calls 'arguments by means of entailment' and 'arguments by means of analogy' respectively. for every procedure, Lillehammer examines 3 of its such a lot admired manifestations in modern moral concept.

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Somewhat more controversially, the set of rationally inescapable norms arguably also includes the basic epistemic norms of belief formation (again within limits, because the extent to which an agent has reasons to have true beliefs may depend on what her other ends are). Wishful thinking is a categorically prescriptive form of irrationality, all else equal. Humean subjectivists like Mackie generally accept the rational inescapability of basic logical and epistemic norms. To that extent they are objectivists about logic and epistemology,u The question for Humean subjectivists is whether it is possible to be an objectivist (in this sense) about logical and epistemic norms while being a subjectivist (in the same sense) about a wide range of norms of practical reason, including the categorical norms of pre-theoretical morality.

Both principles are subsumed under the heading of what Davidson calls 'the principle of charity'. The principle of coherence concerns the internal relations between propositional attitudes. It constrains the interpreter to attribute a degree of internal consistency to the interpreted. The relevant conSistency comes in two forms. First, there must be basic logical consistency between most propositional Value, Normativity and Mind 23 attitudes in order for these attitudes to have determinate content.

Davidson 1984, 199-214). 12). To pick out the (real) values, all that is needed is to pick out those (non-evaluative) features of the world that are correctly valued. Once we have solved the 'epistemological' problem involved in doing so, Davidson claims, we ought to lose our interest in any residual ontological issues that have traditionally been associated with the objectivity of ethics and value. We ought therefore to reject such philosophical notions as 'reaction dependence' or 'the fabric of the world' that have historically been associated with debates about the nature and status of ethical and other evaluative claims.

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