By Jerry Cederblom, David Paulsen
Do you know that studying a number of theories might actually help make larger offerings and be extra winning? severe REASONING exhibits you ways to exploit easy-to-understand logical ideas to resolve difficulties in real-world occasions. And, simply because it's loaded with examples from newspapers and renowned essays, this textbook has the entire fascinating illustrations that may retain you turning pages. examine instruments, assessment aid, and simply understood suggestions assist you assessment and get ready for exams.
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Extra resources for Critical Reasoning
First Amendment absolutists have resisted every attempt to control the huge levels of effluent [from TV] that have turned our society into a toxic waste dump. . One does not have to be a social scientist to see a connection between increased incidents of rape, and other acts of violence against women, and the way women are treated in the popular media. . If rape is a terrible crime, and it is, and if there is a connection between pornography and the cultural permission it gives those already predisposed to perform these acts on women, then the government has an obligation and duty to control its proliferation.
But everyone who has elderly relatives recognizes that the cost of medical care is out of control. And most American voters have elderly relatives. This passage has something to do with government response to rising medical costs. The passage does not, however, give many hints about its conclusion. We might begin by treating each of the three statements as the conclusion of the argument. Reading 1 (1) If most American voters recognize that the cost of medical care is out of control, then the government will act.
And . We could represent modus ponens as: (1) A → B. (2) A. ∴ B. THE ANATOMY OF ARGUMENTS: IDENTIFYING PREMISES AND CONCLUSIONS 33 (1) If A, then B. (2) B. AFFIRMING THE CONSEQUENT ∴ A. (Faulty) Even though this is a faulty pattern, it is common enough that it also has acquired a name. It is known as the fallacy of affirming the consequent (because the second premise affirms the “then . ” part,—that is, the consequent of the first premise). The point of the foregoing discussion is that if a passage could be fit into either of the two patterns, the Principle of Charitable Interpretation would dictate fitting into the modus ponens pattern, because with this interpretation the premises provide the best support for the conclusion.