By Thomas Erskine May
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A revealing examine the position kin-based societies have performed all through historical past and round the world
A full of life, wide-ranging meditation on human improvement that gives extraordinary classes for the way forward for glossy individualism, the guideline of the extended family examines the constitutional rules and cultural associations of kin-based societies, from medieval Iceland to fashionable Pakistan.
Mark S. Weiner, knowledgeable in constitutional legislation and felony historical past, exhibits us that precise person freedom relies on the lifestyles of a powerful nation devoted to the general public curiosity. within the absence of a fit nation, he explains, people clearly are inclined to create criminal constructions established now not on contributors yet particularly on teams. the fashionable liberal kingdom makes individualism attainable by means of retaining this robust force in check—and we ignore the carrying on with danger to liberal values and associations at our peril. whilst, for contemporary individualism to outlive, liberals also needs to recognize the profound social and mental merits the guideline of the extended family offers and realize the loss humanity sustains in its transition to modernity.
Masterfully argued and full of wealthy old aspect, Weiner’s research speaks either to trendy liberal societies and to constructing international locations riven by way of “clannism,” together with Muslim societies within the wake of the Arab Spring.
On a few degrees, the authorised function of improvement reduction has been supplanted by means of the rise of person remittances and overseas direct funding, in addition to by means of regulations that concentrate on concerns corresponding to weather, migration, monetary balance, wisdom, alternate, and defense so that it will elevate possibilities in suffering nations.
In politics, principles subject. they supply the basis for monetary policymaking, which in flip shapes what's attainable in household and foreign politics. but beforehand, little consciousness has been paid to how those principles are produced and disseminated, and the way this procedure varies among nations.
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Extra info for Democracy in Europe: a history
One such example is the Democratic Party of Japan, which comprises previously fragmentary socialist and other elements, and which was victorious in the 2009 parliamentary elections in defeating the long-dominant Liberal Democratic Party. Another instance was the formation of the Conservative Party of Canada by the merger of two minor parties in 2003. It may be that such instances are becoming more common. THE PART Y BASE In comparison, a major party is deﬁned here as one that has a competitive chance to become the governing party (or to lead a governing coalition) because it has both a substantial and durable base and the ability to persuade Parties and Party Systems 15 a large share of independent voters to support it in any given election.
17 In the major states of West Europe, catch-all parties of the left have been losing elections to political families of the center-right, a trend that shows signs of continuing for some time. Voters everywhere vote persistently in their own self-interests as they perceive them. One source of inﬂuence, especially in Italy and Latin America, is clientelism, which induces voters to make ballot choices on the basis of personal material beneﬁts oﬀered by a patron, rather than issues or ideology. Another is personalistic preference for a widely admired personality Parties and Party Systems 25 or that political ﬁgure’s party; the lingering admiration among certain American voters for Franklin Roosevelt’s party 65 years after his death, the enduring fondness of Argentines for the memory (and party) of Juan Perón, and of the French for that of Charles de Gaulle, are all examples.
Cuba and Venezuela), is centered on a single political leader. Mass parties developed as parties became nationalized and, in European countries, to ﬁght for expanded suﬀrage for the working class. Often highly ideological, these parties viewed their purpose as the pursuit of Parties and Party Systems 35 electoral victory in order to alter public policy. Political organization thus preceded (and was the means to) the acquisition of power and changes in public policy. In this regard, they are the opposite of the elite model.